Wen Tingyun Poem: Temple of Su Wu – 温庭筠《苏武庙》

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苏武庙[1]

温庭筠

苏武[2]魂销汉使前,

古祠高树两茫然。

云边雁断胡天月,

陇上羊归塞草烟。

回日楼台非甲帐[3]

去时冠剑是丁年[4]

茂陵[5]不见封侯印,

空向秋波[6]哭逝川[7]

注释:

[1] 苏武庙:苏武庙位置尚不确定,但是诗中的景色与河北丰宁的苏武庙有相吻合之处。丰宁苏武庙,又叫宏济寺,它的始建年代说法有二:一说建于西汉宣帝年间,二说建于宋代,现在尚难确定。但是丰宁现存苏武庙就是康熙时重修、雍正时扩建的苏公祠。

[2] 苏武:汉武帝时名臣,在武帝天汉元年出使匈奴,被扣留。匈奴多次逼降,但是他坚贞不屈。后被匈奴流放到北海牧羝羊(公羊),称只有当羝羊哺乳时才可以被放还,直至昭帝始元六年,才返回汉朝,前后长达十九年。

[3] 甲帐:据《汉武故事》记载,武帝用琉璃、珠玉、明月、夜光错杂天下珍宝做成甲帐,又作乙帐。甲帐给神居住,乙帐给自己住。

[4] 丁年:壮年。

[5] 茂陵:汉武帝的陵寝。

[6] 秋波:秋水。

[7] 逝川:《论语·子罕》中说:“子在川上,曰:’逝者如斯夫!不舍昼夜。’”这里指像流水一样倏然而逝的武帝。

Temple of Su Wu

Wen Tingyun

How could Su Wu, before the envoi, not shed tears?

The ancient temple and tree bespeak bygone years.

Wild geese flew into clouds in moonlit Northern sky;

The sheep returned to west of frontier when grass grew high.

The palace looked unlike that of olden day;

Su was no longer strong as when he went away.

Ennobled when the emperor was in the grave,

He wept in vain over him gone with the autumn wave.

Su Wu (?—60BC) was an envoi retained by the Tartars for eighteen years. He was ennobled on his return when the emperor who sent him to the Tartars was dead. A temple was built in honor of Su’s loyalty.

《苏武庙》是唐代文学家温庭筠创作的一首咏史诗。此诗是作者瞻仰苏武庙时所作,含蓄地表达了作者对苏武所怀的敬意,热情地赞扬苏武的民族气节,寄托着作者的爱国情怀。全诗借凭吊古迹而致慨,遥念先贤,启迪后进,感情极为真挚。艺术方面,其一,在有关时、空描写方面,诗篇深得纵横捭阖、驰骋自如之妙;其二,灵巧、活泼的用典,使诗歌更加情思永,耐人寻味;其三,灵巧的对仗,增加了诗歌的绘画美。

“Temple of Su Wu” is a historical poem written by Wen Ting Yun, a writer of the Tang Dynasty. This poem was written when the author visited Su Wu’s temple, implicitly expressing the author’s respect for Su Wu, enthusiastically praising Su Wu’s national moral character, and holding the author’s patriotic sentiment. The whole poem is a poem that expresses the emotions of the author by paying homage to the monuments, reminding him of his ancestors and inspiring the future generations. In terms of art, firstly, the poem is a masterpiece in the description of time and space; secondly, the use of clever and lively allusions makes the poem more interesting; thirdly, the clever counterpoint adds to the beauty of the poem.

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