Du Fu Poem: The Stone Fortress – 杜甫《八阵图》









[1] 八阵图:由天、地、风、云、龙、虎、鸟、蛇八种阵势组成的一种作战图,是诸葛亮的一项军事创造。八阵图遗址在夔州(今重庆奉节)永安宫前平沙上。

[2] 石不转:化用《诗经·邶风·柏舟》中的诗句“我心匪石,不可转也”,表现事物的不易变更。

[3] 吞吴:吞并吴国的计划。《三国志·蜀书》记载,先主刘备称帝号的第二年,也就是章武元年,刘备想以关羽被吴国杀害为借口讨伐吴国,实际上是想要借机吞并东吴,进而统一中原。但不幸的是,吴国大将陆议等打败了刘备的进攻,并将刘备追到当时的鱼复县,也就是夔州永安县,刘备病重并逝于军中。诸葛亮从成都赶到永安,刘备将蜀国托付给诸葛亮。这时,吴国将军黄元攻打蜀军,被诸葛亮生擒至成都。这就是刘备企图吞并吴国而以失败告终的历史事实。

The Stone Fortress

Du Fu

With his exploits history is crowned;

For the stone fortress he’s renowned.

The river flows but stones still stand,

Though he’d not taken back lost land.

The stone fortress was the exploit of Zhuge Liang, premier of the Kingdom of Shu.


“The Stone Fortress” is a poem written by Du Fu, a poet of the Tang Dynasty. The first couplet of the poem specifies the place and time of year of the visit and introduces the allusion to Dayu’s water control; the jaw couplet describes the interior of Dayu’s temple from afar to near; the neck couplet describes the surroundings and atmosphere of Dayu’s temple, with clouds steaming inside the temple and the sound of the river below, a majestic scene that alludes to the merits of Dayu’s water control; the last couplet remembers Dayu’s great achievements in water control because of his temple. The poem’s language is concise, its mood profound, its emotions undulating, its strokes pensive and powerful, its writing style rigorous, and its overall meteorological grandeur, and the combination of real and imaginary, anthropomorphic and evocative techniques through the shift in perspective between distant and near views, which has the artistic effect of blending scenes and long rhymes.

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