Li He Poem: The Violet Inkstand of Master Yang – 李贺《杨生青花紫石砚歌》

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杨生青花紫石砚歌

李贺

端州[1]石工巧如神,踏天磨刀割紫云[2]

傭刓[3]抱水含满唇[4],暗洒苌弘[5]冷血痕。

纱帷昼暖墨花春,轻沤漂沫松麝薰[6]

干腻薄重立脚匀,数寸光秋无日昏[7]

圆毫[8]促点声静新:孔砚[9]宽硕何足云!

注释:

[1] 端州:就是今广州肇庆,这里盛产砚石,被称为端砚。唐代书法家柳公权评各家砚石时,将端砚列为第一。紫色端砚尤其被世人称重,因为它石质坚实、细润,不损害笔毫,而且雕工精美。砚中的青花是指砚台贮水处的赤黄点,世人称为“鸲鹆(qú yù)眼”。青花本是砚石上的青筋,但是当它入水时,就像有萍藻在浮动,所以被士人珍视。

[2] 紫云:这里指紫花砚砚石。

[3] 傭刓:傭(yōnɡ),指将砚石料磨至平整;刓(wán),指在砚石料上雕刻。

[4] 唇:这里指紫花砚的贮水处。

[5] 苌(chánɡ)弘:古代关于苌弘有两说:一说他是东周时的内史大夫,据说是孔子的老师;另一说认为是周敬王夫人。《庄子·外物》载:苌弘因为忠诚被贬到蜀地,死去后留下的血三年化为碧。不论苌弘是哪位,苌弘化碧的典故都是一种含冤的象征。这里苌弘则只是借用来指碧色。

[6] 松麝薰:这里指松烟和麝香烧制的优等墨。

[7] 日昏:这里指砚台中的墨没有昏暗之处。

[8] 圆毫:这里指饱蘸墨水的笔毫圆润。

[9] 孔砚:这里指尼山石砚。孔子名丘字仲尼,后人把他的出生地称为尼山,有人取尼山石为砚,以表达对孔子的尊重,但是尼山砚质料不好,使用起来也不舒服。

The Violet Inkstand of Master Yang

Li He

The mason of Duanzhou has marvel-doing hands,

Whetting his knife to carve blue clouds, aloft he stands.

He grinds the stone in order to make an inkwell;

Violet flowers look dim like cold blood shed pell-mell.

Black flowers seem like spring at noon behind the screen;

The pine-soot ink steeped in water smells like musk keen.

Smooth, water-proof, flat and heavy, it stands steadfast;

Like autumn bright its color, rain or shine, will last.

Your brush will make no noise when on paper you write.

Could the inkstone of Confucius give such delight?

The poet glorifies the mason who carves violet clouds on the inkstand.

《杨生青花紫石砚歌》是唐代诗人李贺的作品。此诗为咏砚诗,诗人热情地称赞了端州砚石的精美之处,歌颂了端州石工高超的手艺,用浪漫的比喻、细腻的笔触,描述了采石、制砚的情景和所制青花紫石砚的精美。全诗意境开阔,形象生动,造语奇妙,用典纯熟。

The poem “The Violet Inkstand of Master Yang” is a work by Li He, a poet of the Tang Dynasty. The poem is a poem on inkstone, in which the poet enthusiastically praises the exquisiteness of Duanzhou inkstone and praises the excellent craftsmanship of Duanzhou stonemasons, and uses romantic metaphors and delicate strokes to describe the scene of stone quarrying and inkstone making and the exquisiteness of the blue and purple stone inkstones made. The poem is open in mood, vivid in image, wonderful in language and pure in allusion.

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