Wang Wei, The Blue Stream – 王维《青溪》

0
167

青溪

王维

[1]入黄花川[2]

每逐[3]青溪水。

随山将万转,

趣途[4]无百里。

声喧乱石中,

色静深松里。

漾漾泛菱荇[5]

澄澄映葭苇。

我心素已[6]闲,

清川澹[7]如此。

请留盘石上,

垂钓将已矣[8]

注释:

[1] 言:发语词,无义。

[2] 黄花川:在唐代凤州黄花县境内,今陕西凤县东北黄花镇附近。

[3] 逐:循;沿。

[4] 趣途:指走过的路途。趣,同“趋”。

[5] 菱荇:水中草本植物。菱,一年生草本,叶浮水面,果实供食用或制淀粉。荇,即荇菜,供药用,白茎,紫叶,浮水上。

[6] 已:通“以”。用如“而且”。

[7] 澹:恬静;安静。

[8] 将已矣:将以此终其身。

The Blue Stream

Wang Wei

I follow the Blue Rill

To the Stream of Yellow Blooms.

It winds from hill to hill

Till far away it looms.

It roars amid pebbles white

And calms down under pines green.

Weeds float on ripples light,

Reeds mirrored like a screen.

Mind’s carefree, alone;

The clear stream flows with ease.

I would sit on a stone

To fish whatever I please.

This poem is typical of the poet’s description of hills and rills. His mind is as carefree as the clear stream.

赏析

  此诗借颂扬名不见经传的青溪,来印证自己的素愿。以青溪之淡泊,喻自身之素愿安闲。

  这是一首写于归隐之后的山水诗。诗的每一句都可以独立成为一幅优美的画面,溪流随山势蜿蜓,在乱石中奔腾咆哮,在松林里静静流淌,水面微波荡漾,各种水生植物随波浮动,溪边的巨石上,垂钓老翁消闲自在。诗句自然清淡,绘声绘色,静中有动,托物寄情,韵味无穷。

  诗开头四句对青溪作总的介绍后,接着采用“移步换景”的写法,顺流而下,描绘了溪水一幅幅各具特色的画面。你看,当它在山间乱石中穿过时,水势湍急,潺潺的溪流声忽然变成了一片喧哗。“喧”字造成了强烈的声感,给人以如闻其声的感受。当它流经松林中的平地时,这同一条青溪却又显得那么娴静、安谧,几乎没有一点声息。澄碧的溪水与两岸郁郁葱葱的松色相映,融成一片,色调特别幽美、和谐。这一联中一动一静,以动衬静,声色相通,极富于意境美。再看,当青溪缓缓流出松林,进入开阔地带后,又是另一番景象:水面上浮泛着菱叶、荇菜等水生植物,一片葱绿,水流过处,微波荡漾,摇曳生姿;再向前走去,水面又似明镜般的清澈碧透,岸边浅水中的芦花、苇叶,倒映如画,天然生色。这一联,“漾漾”绘水动貌,“澄澄”状水静貌,也是一动一静,极为传神。诗人笔下的青溪,既喧闹,又沉静,既活泼,又安详,既幽深,又素净,从不断的流动变化中,表现出了鲜明个性和盎然生意。读后令人油然而生爱悦之情。

  其实,青溪并没有什么奇景,它那素淡的景致,为什么在诗人的眼中、笔下,会具有如此的魅力呢?诚如王国维所说:“一切景语皆情语也。”(《人间词话删稿》)王维也正是从青溪素淡的天然景致中,发现了与他那恬淡的心境、闲逸的情趣高度和谐一致的境界。“我心素已闲,清川澹如此。”诗人正是有意借青溪来为自己写照,以清川的淡泊来印证自己的素愿,心境、物境在这里已融合为一了。最后,诗人暗用了东汉严子陵垂钓富春江的典故,也想以隐居青溪来作为自己的归宿了。这固然说明诗人对青溪的喜爱,更反映了他在仕途失意后自甘淡泊的心情。这一点,写来含而不露,耐人寻味。

  这首诗,自然、清淡、素雅,写景抒情均不刻意为之,表面上看似不着力,而读来韵味隽永醇厚,平淡而有思致。前人评“王右丞如秋水芙蕖,倚风自笑”,是最恰当不过的。▲

Appreciation

  This poem celebrates the unheard of Qingxi to prove his own wish. The poem uses the indifference of Qingxi as a metaphor for his own wish for peace and relaxation.

  This is a landscape poem written after a reclusive period. Each line of the poem can become a beautiful picture on its own, with the stream winding with the mountains, rushing and roaring among the rocks, flowing quietly in the pine forest, the surface of the water rippling, various aquatic plants floating with the waves, and the old man fishing at ease on the boulders by the stream. The poem is natural and light, with a beautiful voice and a touch of movement in the stillness, and the rhythm is endless.

  After a general introduction of the stream in the first four lines of the poem, the poem then uses the method of “changing the scenery” to write down the stream, depicting a picture of the stream with its own characteristics. When it passes through the rocks in the mountains, the water is so fast that the sound of the gurgling stream suddenly turns into a clamor. The word “clamor” creates a strong sense of sound, giving people the feeling of hearing its sound. When it flows through the flat land in the pine forest, this same green stream seems so quiet and serene, almost without a sound. The clear blue water of the stream and the lush pine color on both sides of the river reflect each other, blending into a piece, the tone is particularly beautiful and harmonious. In this couplet, a movement and a stillness are set off by movement, and the sound and color are connected, which is extremely rich in the beauty of the mood. When the green stream slowly flows out of the pine forest and enters the open area, it is another scene: the water surface is floating with water plants such as rhombus leaves and Nymphoides, which are lush and green, and where the water flows, the microwaves ripple and sway; then go forward, the water surface is as clear and blue as a mirror, and the reeds and leaves in the shallow water on the shore are reflected like a picture, with natural color. In this couplet, “rippling” paints the appearance of moving water, and “clearing” describes the appearance of still water, which is also a movement and a stillness, extremely evocative. The poet’s Qingxi is both noisy and quiet, lively and tranquil, deep and pure, showing its distinctive personality and business from the constant flowing changes. It is a delightful sight to read.

  In fact, there is nothing strange about Qingxi, but why does its plain scenery have such charm in the poet’s eyes and under his pen? As Wang Guowei said, “All words of scenery are words of love.” (Wang Wei also found in the natural scenery of Qingxi River a realm that was highly harmonious and consistent with his tranquil state of mind and leisurely sentiments. “My mind has been idle, the clear river is so tantalizing.” The poet intends to use the green stream to write a picture of himself, and to use the indifference of the clear river to confirm his own vegetative wishes. Finally, the poet alludes to the allusion to Yan Ziling’s fishing in the Fuchun River in the Eastern Han Dynasty, and also wants to take the seclusion of Qingxi River as his home. The poet’s love for Qingxi certainly shows his love for the river, but it also reflects his feelings of self-absorption after his disappointment in his career. The poem is written in a subtle but unobtrusive way, which is intriguing.

  This poem is natural, light and elegant, and it is written without any deliberate effort to express his feelings. It is a perfect example of this. ▲▲

Previous articleZu Yong, Snow atop the Southern Mountains – 祖咏《终南望余雪》
Next articleWang Wei, Autumn Evening In The Mountains – 王维《山居秋暝》
Discover the wonders of China through studying abroad - a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to expand your horizons, immerse yourself in a rich and diverse culture, and gain a world-class education.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here