Chinese Cities – Zhengzhou

0
561
Zhengzhou or “郑” for short, was called the business capital in ancient times. It is the capital of Henan province, a megacity, and the core city of the Central Plains urban agglomeration. It is an important central city in central China and an important national comprehensive transportation hub approved by the State Council. As of 2019, the city has 6 districts, 1 county, and 5 county-level cities under its jurisdiction, with a total area of 7446 square kilometers, a permanent population of 10.352 million, an urban population of 7.721 million, and an urbanization rate of 74.6%. The GDP of the region in 2020 is 1,2003 billion yuan.
zhengzhou overlooking scenery
Zhengzhou is located in Central China, the lower Yellow River, the hinterland of the Central Plains, and the north of central Henan. It is located in the transition zone between the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and the northeast flank of the Funiu Mountains to the Huanghuai Plain. It is high in the west, low in the east, high in the middle, and high in the northeast. Low or low in the southeast; it belongs to the northern temperate continental monsoon climate with four distinct seasons.
zhengzhou map
Zhengzhou is the resident of the Zhengzhou Joint Logistics Support Center of the Joint Logistics Support Force, an important hub city for railways, aviation, electric power, post, and telecommunications in the country, and has the largest truck marshaling station in Asia. Zhengzhou Airport Zone is China’s only national-level comprehensive experimental zone for the airport economy. Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange is China’s first futures exchange. Zhengzhou is also a core part of China’s (Henan) Pilot Free Trade Zone. In January 2017, the National Development and Reform Commission replied to support Zhengzhou’s construction of a national central city.
zhengzhou station
Zhengzhou is the Chinese civilization’s important birthplace of, the national historical and cultural city, one of the six great site Areas supported by the state, League of Historical Cities members. Zhengzhou has been the capital five times in history, with nearly 10,000 immovable cultural relics, including 2 world cultural heritage sites, and 74 national key cultural relics protection units with 80 items.

Geographical environment

position

Zhengzhou City is located in the southern part of the North China Plain and the lower reaches of the Yellow River. It lies in the north of central Henan Province, borders Kaifeng to the east, Luoyang to the west, the Yellow River to the north and Xinxiang and Jiaozuo to the north, Xuchang to the south, and Pingdingshan to the southwest. The city is 135 long from east to west. -143 kilometers, 70-78 kilometers wide from north to south, with a total area of 7,567 square kilometers, between 112°42′-114°14′ east longitude and 34°16′-34°58′ north latitude.

topography

Zhengzhou City is located in the transition zone of the Yumai of the eastern section of the Qinling Mountains, the second-level landform step and the third-level landform step in China. The overall terrain is high in the southwest and low in the northeast, descending in a stepped manner. From the west and southwest of the structure, the middle and low mountains are eroded, gradually descending into the structure denudation hills, loess hills, sloping (hill) plains and alluvial plains, forming a relatively complete Landform sequence. Among them, the middle and low mountains in the west and southwest are composed of Songshan and Jishan respectively, and they are distributed in the middle area of the west and the edge of the southwest in an east-west direction almost parallel.
The terrain elevation of Songshan Mountain is generally 500-1200 meters, and the relative elevation difference is 30-600 meters, forming the natural boundary between Dengfeng, Xinmi, Gongyi, and Xingyang. Its highest peak, Yuzhai Mountain, is 1512.4 meters above sea level. The terrain elevation of Jishan Mountain is generally 500-800 meters, and the relative elevation difference is 200-400 meters, forming the border of southwestern Zhengzhou City; the tectonic denudation hills are located in the front of the middle and low mountains, the terrain elevation is 200-500 meters, and the relative elevation difference is 100-200 meters.
Affected by the lithology of the strata, the general limestone and sandstone distribution areas often form a positive topography of garden hills and bald ridges, while the shale and mudstone distribution areas often form relatively low-lying negative topography; loess hills are located in the northwest, central and northern regions of the region , The terrain elevation is 200-300 meters, the relative elevation difference is 30-150 meters, the ground ravines are vertical and horizontal, and the terrain is fragmented; the inclined (hill) plain is located in front of the hills, and the north-south strips spread out in the central area. The terrain elevation is 100-150 meters, from west to east, longitudinally from the front of the mound to the lower reaches of the slope, the slope is generally 3-10 degrees, from south to north, the horizontal undulating form of hills and hills; alluvial plains are widely distributed in The eastern part is formed by the alluvial deposits of the Yellow River, the terrain is flat, the ground elevation is 80-100 meters, and it slopes from northwest to southeast.
zhengzhou city night scenery

climate

Zhengzhou City belongs to the northern temperate continental monsoon climate, with frequent alternating heating and cooling groups, with four distinct seasons in spring, summer, autumn and winter. Winter is long and dry and cold, with scarce rain and snow; spring is dry and less rainy, but spring is dry, cold and warm and more windy; summer is relatively hot, with a high concentration of precipitation; autumn climate is cool and time is short.
The annual average temperature is 15.6℃; August is the hottest, with a monthly average temperature of 25.9℃; January is the coldest, with a monthly average temperature of 2.15℃. The annual average rainfall is 542.15 mm and the frost-free period is 209 days. The annual sunshine time is about 1869.7 hours.

hydrology

There are 124 large and small rivers in Zhengzhou City, and 29 rivers with larger drainage areas, which belong to the two major water systems of the Yellow River and the Huai River. The Yiluo River, Baoshui River and Kuhe River in Zhengzhou City are tributaries of the Yellow River. The Yiluo River is formed after the confluence of the Luo River and the Yi River, with a total length of 447 kilometers. Baoshui River is divided into two branches. The east branch originates from the north slope of Wuzhiling, Tianzhongwan Village, Jianshan Township, Xinmi City, and the west branch originate from Dongniudan Mountain, Wuzhiling, north of Gongmiguan Village, Jianshan Township, Xinmi City. The east branch of the upper reaches of the river is built with Xianhe Lake Reservoir, and the west branch is built with Xiayu Reservoir.
Kuhe was called “旃然河” in ancient times. The Jinshui River flows from southwest to northeast. Jinshui enters Zhengzhou city through Guojiazui Reservoir and Dihu Reservoir (formerly Jinhai Reservoir).

Natural resources

zhengzhou natural resources

 

water resources

Zhengzhou’s annual average precipitation is 4.26 billion cubic meters, surface water resources are 494 million cubic meters, underground water resources are 953 million cubic meters, surface water and groundwater overlap are 324 million cubic meters, and total water resources are 1.124 billion cubic meters. Meters, the water production modulus is 151,000 cubic meters/km2, the per capita water resources volume is 179 cubic meters, and the per mu per mu is 256 cubic meters. It is an area with severe water shortage.

plant resources

Zhengzhou is a warm-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest vegetation type in terms of flora division. Plant resources are typical of Songshan plants and Yellow River wetland plants. There are 78 families, 250 genera, and 400 species of tree species in Zhengzhou. The common plants include Populus tomentosa, Populus tomentosa, Ailanthus altissima, Paulownia, Platycladus orientalis, wattle, motherwort, crabgrass, goosegrass, setaria, etc. National key protected wild plants include 3 families of ginkgo, wild soybean, and wild lotus. There are also a variety of key protected wild plants in Henan Province. These species are concentrated in the mountainous areas of Zhengzhou City and the wetlands of the Yellow River.

animal resources

There are 46 species of national key protected wild animals found in Zhengzhou, of which 9 species of national key protected animals are white stork, black stork, golden eagle, white-shouldered eagle, white-tailed sea eagle, white-headed crane, red-crowned crane, white crane, Great bustard; 37 species of national second-level protected animals, such as giant salamander, tiger frog, white spoonbill, otter, whooper swan, cygnet, mandarin duck, warbler, goshawk, sparrowhawk, sparrowhawk, etc. There are 19 species of key protected animals at the provincial level, such as frogs, herons, grass herons, great egrets, swan geese, grey geese, red-footed falcons, nighthawks and so on. There are a total of 206 species of terrestrial wild animals (not including Insecta) protected by the state that are beneficial or of important economic and scientific value, including 23 species of Mammalidae, 169 species of Birds, 6 species of Amphibians and 8 species of Reptiles. Wild animals are mainly distributed in areas along the Yellow River, mountainous areas and plains in Zhengzhou.

mineral resources

Zhengzhou is a city with abundant reserves of natural resources in the country. The proven mineral deposits include 36 types of coal, bauxite, refractory clay, and whetstone. Among them, coal reserves are 6.36 billion tons, bauxite reserves are 200 million tons, and refractory clay mines and cement limestone are the dominant minerals. , The natural oilstone is of excellent mineral quality, and it is one of the largest oilstone bases in the country.
zhengzhou University Science Park

Population

As of November 2020, the permanent population of Zhengzhou City is 12,600,574, which is an increase of 3,974,069, or 46.07%, compared with 8,626,505 in the sixth national population census in 2010, with an average annual growth rate of 3.86%.
Among the city’s permanent residents, the population living in cities and towns is 9,789,029, accounting for 78.40%; the population living in rural areas is 2,721,545, accounting for 21.60%. Compared with the sixth national population census in 2010, the city’s urban population increased by 4,401,534, rural population decreased by 428,049, and the proportion of the urban population increased by 14.91 percentage points.
There are 3,636,411 family households and 497,157 collective households in the city. The population of family households is 10,237,153 people, and the population of collective households is 2,363,421 people. The average population per household is 2.82 people.
In addition to the Han, Zhengzhou has 47 ethnic minorities including Hui, Manchu, Mongolian, Zhuang, and Tujia.
zhengzhou night fireworks

Education

As of January 2021, Zhengzhou has 2 national ” double first-class ” universities, 6 key universities with characteristics of Henan Province, 2 national key military academies of the 2110 Project, National University of Science and Technology 1 park ( Henan National University Science and Technology Park ), 12 postgraduate training units. Dalian University of Technology, Zhejiang University, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Xi’an Jiaotong University, and other national key 985 engineering universities have successively established Advanced Research Institutes in Zhengzhou.
At the end of 2019, Zhengzhou had 11,787 postgraduate enrollments, an increase of 1% over the previous year; 31,619 postgraduates, an increase of 4.7%; and 10,102 graduates, an increase of 31.5%. There are 62 ordinary colleges and universities with 361,000 students, an increase of 9.9%; students at school are 1.079 million, an increase of 8.6%; and 270,000 graduates, an increase of 2.3%.
There were 117 secondary vocational and technical education schools with 124,000 students and 330,000 students, an increase of 1.8%; 98,000 graduates, an increase of 8.6%. There were 127 ordinary high schools with 71,000 students, an increase of 4.2%; 204,000 students, an increase of 3.9%; 63,000 graduates, an increase of 0.3%. There were 359 ordinary junior high schools with 149,000 students, an increase of 5.5%; 430,000 students at school, an increase of 7%; 126,000 graduates, an increase of 8.7%.

zhengzhou university

 

  Full-time general higher education institutions

Zhengzhou University (“ Double First-Class ” World-Class University Construction University, 211 Project, Ministry-provincial Cooperation Joint University ),

Henan University ( Henan University Longzihu Campus, “Double-First-Class” World-Class Discipline Construction University, 111 Plan, Provincial-Ministry Cooperation Established a university )

Chinese People’s Liberation Army Information Engineering University ( 211 Project Key Military Academy), PLA Artillery Air Defense Academy (Zhengzhou Campus, 2110 Project Key Military Academy)

Henan University of Technology (the characteristic backbone University of Henan Province, the provincial joint university)

Henan Agricultural University (the characteristic backbone University of Henan Province, the provincial joint university)

North China University of Water Conservancy and Hydropower (the characteristic backbone University of Henan Province, the provincial joint university) )

Henan University of Economics and Law (the backbone university with characteristics of Henan Province)

Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (the backbone university with characteristics of Henan Province)

Zhengzhou University of Light Industry (the backbone university with characteristics of Henan Province)

Zhengzhou Institute of Aeronautical Industry Management

Zhongyuan Institute of Technology

Henan Institute of Finance and Banking

Henan Institute of Engineering

Henan College of Animal Husbandry Economics

Railway Police College

Henan Police College

Zhengzhou Normal University

Zhengzhou Institute of Engineering and Technology

Zhengzhou University of Finance and Economics

Huanghe Institute of Technology

Zhengzhou University of Science and Technology

Zhengzhou Chenggong University of Finance and Economics

Zhengzhou Shengda School of Economics and Trade Management

Zhengzhou Institute of Industrial Application Technology

Zhengzhou Institute of Business

Zhengzhou Sias College

Zhengzhou University Sports College

Zhongyuan Institute of Science and Technology

Zhengzhou Institute of Light Industry Easton International Academy of Fine Arts

Zhengzhou University of Economics and Trade

Previous articleChinese Cities – Shenzhen
Next articleQufu Fareast Vocational and Technical College

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here