Chinese Nation – Sibe people

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Sibe people is an ancient ethnic group with a long history in China. Xibo nationality originally lived in Northeast China. During the reign of Qianlong, the Qing government recruited some Xibo nationality to move to Xinjiang to enrich the area. Today, most Xibo people live in Liaoning Province (70.2%), Chabuchar Xibo Autonomous County, Huocheng, Gongliu, and other counties in Xinjiang, and scattered in Shenyang, Donggang, Kaiyuan, Yixian, Beizhen, Xinmin, Fengcheng, Fuyu, Eastern Inner Mongolia and Nenjiang River Basin in Heilongjiang Province.

 

Sibe language belongs to the Manchu branch of the Manchu Tungusic language family of Altaic language family. It is a language developed based on Manchu and is very close to Manchu. Xibo’s script was slightly changed from Manchu in 1947. The Xibo Nationality in Xinjiang has maintained its own language and characters, and also uses Chinese, Uygur, and Kazakh. The Xibo Nationality in Northeast China is the same as the Han nationality in language, food, clothing, and living.

 

Sibe person

 

Faith

In the past, the religious beliefs of the Sibe people were miscellaneous. They once worshipped nature such as heaven, earth, sun, moon and stars, animals and plants such as Xianbei beast, fox, snake, insect, ancient tree and ginseng; The worship of the land God Bana jin, the grain god, the plague God, the livestock God Haierkan, the kitchen god Zuijima, the door god Dukayinduri, the goddess of the empress, the river god Luochahan, the mountain god Alinwuran, the guide God Zhuoyouduri, the hunting God Bandamafa, the willow God Fodohomafa and the fishing God Nimuhan Duri, the worship of the soul and the ancestor. The level of belief is different. Generally speaking, they mainly worship “mother Xili” and “Haierhanmafa”, which Protect livestock. They believe in Shamanism and Tibetan Buddhism.

 

Sibe building

 

Diet

In the past, Sibe people had many rules to abide by in their diet. For example, when they often ate the steamed bread, the sky and the ground should be on the table. The sky and the ground should be on the top and the ground should be on the bottom. They should cut it into four pieces and put it on one side of the table. It is not allowed to sit on the doorsill or walk standing when eating. It is not allowed to tap the table or bowl with chopsticks or put chopsticks on the bowl horizontally. In the past, father and son and daughter-in-law were not allowed to sit at the same table. When you meet your elders on the way, you should say hello and give way; when you meet your peers, you should say hello to each other. When a guest visits, his daughter-in-law should come out to pack cigarettes and pour tea. If the number of people who pack cigarettes and pour tea is equal to that of the guest, the guest should stand up or lean down to pick them up with both hands. When the guest says goodbye, the whole family should come out and send them to the gate.

 

There is an old custom in the siege of the Sibe people. No matter how much game is hunted, all participants, regardless of size, are equally distributed. Even when passers-by meet with the game, they will get a share without exception. However, the head and hoof of the prey should be given to the first hit, which is a reward. Xibe people believe that the prey is given to everyone by nature, not belonging to anyone, and can not be used alone.

 

Xibo people not only regard the siege as a means to obtain food but also as a symbol of unity and auspiciousness.

 

Sibe food

 

Clothes & Accessories

The early clothing materials of Sibe nationality were mainly animal skins such as deer and pig, which paid more attention to the function of cold protection and warmth preservation. Xibo costumes are also different and changed due to the differences of times and regions, as well as the influence of different nationalities. Traditional Xibo costumes have absorbed the advantages of Mongolian, Manchu, and Han costumes. Xibo men like to wear blue, green, gray, and brown robes, with a green mandarin jacket on the outside, a dome hat on the head, a green cloth belt on the waist, and thick-soled shoes on the feet. To facilitate horseback riding, men’s robes and jackets are split on the left and right. Xibo people’s robe is a long robe with a large part, the bottom is about half a foot below the knee, the cuffs are horseshoe-shaped, can be rolled up, can be put down, the trousers are worn on the lower body, plus “pants” (only two legs, no crotch, and waist), the “jacket pants” are worn in spring and autumn, and the “cotton pants” are worn in winter.

 

There are many styles of Sibe women’s dress. Like to wear all kinds of colored cloth and cheongsam (more piping), embroidered shoes, shawl and so on. The big skirt robe should be pasted with lace or embroidered wide edge, and love to wear a jacket. The jacket with a pair of front and a big skirt should also be pasted with lace. The trousers should be tied with black leg belts, and the feet should wear embroidered shoes. Girls and unmarried girls, a long braid, with all kinds of “wool” braid root, do not cut hair curtain, head, braid love to wear some flowers, ear wears gold (silver) earrings, wearing elegant and beautiful cheongsam. Inside the pocket of the right waist, tuck in a colorful handkerchief, half of which is exposed outside the pocket. Feet wear embroidered cloth shoes, showing the vitality of youth. The dress of a daughter-in-law is no different from that of a girl, but it is more colorful than that of a girl. The hairstyle is also different. The daughter-in-law combs a “Panlongji”, with “bangs” in front of her forehead and a “swallowtail” behind her head. The black hair on her head is covered up in a bun shape. In daily life, the braid is combed into a double braid or two “Paji” to form a big “pimple bun”. Hair oil, no head oil, with elm skin bubble water is thick and bright. The face can be painted powder, the mouth can be painted lipstick, can dye nails, and so on. There is a gold hairpin on the head bun and a gold (silver, jade) bracelet on the wrist.

 

The clothes of Sibe old people are different. Generally, the old men wear a small white coat inside and a long robe outside (cotton in winter). The individual also wears a Chinese coat, white socks, and cloth shoes (black cloth shoes with the round mouth in spring, summer, and autumn, and black cloth shoes with felt cotton in winter). The waist of the shoes is slightly higher in spring and summer, which is called “Shabu Sabu” in Xibo language), and the trouser legs are tied and the top hat is worn; Women’s dress changes with age. Most of the elderly women wear a blue and black cheongsam, long to their feet, trousers tied, white socks, embroidered black cloth shoes (cotton high waist in winter) in spring, summer, and autumn, and cotton robe and cotton hat in winter, which are similar to Kun autumn hat of Han nationality. When the elderly women go out, they have to hold a cigarette bag in their hand, and when they visit, they will pack cigarettes into each other.

 

After the revolution of 1911, the changes of Sibe costumes were greatly influenced by Han, Uygur, and other ethnic groups. Young women like to wear colorful dresses, skirts, shirts and lapels, high collar short coats, boots, and so on. Young men like to wear suits, sportswear, jackets, leather shoes, etc. only 80-90-year-old men and women occasionally wear long gowns, Mandarin jackets, top hats, autumn hats, and embroidered shoes.

 

Sibe carton picture

 

Festival

Many traditional festivals of Sibe people are the same as those of Han people. Such as Spring Festival, Qingming Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, etc. Every year before the Lunar New Year’s Eve, every family has to kill pigs and sheep to make all kinds of new year dishes, cakes, and dried fruits. On New Year’s Eve, the whole family began to make dumplings together. On the first and fifth day of the first month, the dumplings were put into the pot; on the second day, they wanted to eat longevity noodles. When making longevity noodles, make broth first, then cook the noodles in another pot, remove the water, and add broth when eating, which symbolizes sending the old to welcome the new. Although the time of some festivals is the same as that of the Han nationality, the festival has its own unique features, such as “Spring Festival”, “Dragon Boat Festival”, “Lantern Festival”, etc.

 

During the Spring Festival, people often visit relatives, worship their ancestors, and have entertainment activities. In the third month of the lunar calendar, “Yuqingming” with fish as offerings, in the seventh month of the lunar calendar, “Guaqingming” with melons and fruits as offerings, Punjabi Yichesunza (Dragon Boat Festival) and Mid Autumn Festival. The way to celebrate these festivals is to sacrifice, eat and entertain in the way of national customs. The national festivals include the “April 18” westward migration Festival and “smear Festival” on January 16.

 

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