Exemplarious translation of 春秋chunqiu 2


Spring and Autumn Annals 1.2:
3rd month; the Duke hastened together with Yifu from (the small state of) Zhu to form a coalition at Mie.

Zuo’s Tradition 1.2:
3 month. The Duke hastened together with Yifu from Zhu to form a coalition at Mie. “Yifu from Zhu” is Zhu Kezi. Because he was not yet enfeoffed with a title by the King of Zhou, he is not entitled here, but instead he is called with his honorific style Yifu “Father of Normative Appearance”. The coalition with Zhu was founded because Duke Yin acted as Prince Regent (for the later Duke Huan) and was searching for good relationship with other states.

Gongyang’s Commentary 1.2:
Third Month. The Duke hastened together with Zhu Lou “Yifu” to form a coalition at Mei (!).
What does “hasten together” (ji 及) mean? It means “participate”. Both “come together” (hui 会) and “meet” (jih 暨) mean “participate” too; but why do the Annals sometimes say “come together”, sometimes “hasten together”, and sometimes “meet”? (Note: although the text does not use these two words, the Gongyang Commentary explains all three terms here.) “Come together” (hui)
means “assemble”; “hasten together” (ji) means “urgently”; “meet” (jih)
means “find together”. “Hasten together” (ji) means that both sides are willing to meet; “find together” (jih) means that there is no other way. Who is Yifu? He was the Lord of Zhu (or Zhulou). Why is he recorded with his style and not with his name? It is, to honour him. Why is he honoured here? Because he formed a coalition with the Duke. There are many nobles forming a coalition with the Duke; why then is only Yifu especially honoured here? Because he is worth being honoured. Why? Because his coalition with the Duke had the effect that he gradually made steps into the direction of the right cause. What is Mei? It is the point of meeting.

Guliang’s Commentary 1.2:
Third month. The Duke hastened together with Yifu from Zhu to form a coalition at Mei (!).
What does “hastened together” mean? It means that the state of Lu was willing to meet with the state of Zhu. “Yi” is only the style of Yifu. “Fu” means, “mentor”, and it is a beautiful addressing for a lower aristocrate. Why do the Annals not say “Viscount of Zhu”? Because he was at that stime still a small person and not yet enfeoffed by the King of Zhou. The day of the meeting is not recorded because the coalition treaty was changed later. Mei is the name of a place.

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