Exemplarious translation of Rites of the Zhou

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1.天官冢宰
惟王建国,辨方正位,体国经野,设官分职,以为民民极。乃立天官冢宰,使帅 其属而掌邦治,以佐王均邦国。
治官之属:大宰,卿一人。小宰,中大夫二人。
宰夫,下大夫四人;上士八人,中士十有六人,旅下士三十有二人;府六人, 史十有二人,胥十有二人,徒百有二十人。
The Prime Minister and the “Heavenly Ministry”
The only person that constitutes the empire, is the king. He determines the [four] regions and fixes the [governmental] positions; he embodies the cities and measures the countryside; he creates the ministries and separates their respective functions; this all to make a fixed pole for the people. Therewith, he institutes the “Heavenly ministry” and the office of prime minister, he charges the prime minister to head his subordinates and to take into his hands the administration of the state, to help the king to regulate the fiefdoms and the state.
The ministry consists of the following persons:
The Great Administrator, one ministerial person. Small Administrators, two prefects of second rank. Assistant Administrators, four prefects of third rank. Eight graduated officers of first rank, sixteen graduates officers of second rank. Ordinary officers: thirty-two graduated officers of third rank, six officers for the magazins, twelve scribes, twelve aides, and one hundred and twenty retainers…
大宰之职,掌建邦之六典,以佐王治邦国:
一曰治典,以经邦国,以治官府,以纪万民。
二曰教典,以安邦国,以教官府,以扰万民。
三曰礼典,以和邦国, 以统百官,以谐万民。
四曰政典,以平邦国,以正百官,以均万民。
五曰刑典, 以诘邦国,以刑百官,以纠万民。
六曰事典,以富邦国,以任百官,以生万民。
The office of Great Administrator:
He holds in his hands the duty to establish the Six Constitutions to constitute the empire, for he has to help the king to regulate the fiefdoms and the state.
First, the Regulating Constitution, to measure the fiefdoms and the state, to regulate the ministries and to structure the people.
Second, the Instructing Constitution, to consolidate the country, to instruct the Ministries and to civilize the people.
Third, the Ritual Constitution, to harmonize the country, to unite the Ministries and to bring the people together.
Forth, the Governmental Constitution, to appease the country, to correct the officers, and to make equal all people.
Fifth, the Punishment Constitution, to correct the country, to chastise the officers, and to bind the people to what is needed.
Sixth, the Labour Constitution, to enrich the country, to make active the officers, and to nourish the people…
以八法治官府…
以八则治都鄙…
以八柄诏王驭群臣…
以八统诏王驭万民…
以九职任万民…
以九赋敛财贿…
以九式均节财用…
以九贡致邦国之用…
以九两系邦国之民…
岁终,则令百官府各正其 治,受其会,听其致事,而诏王废置。三岁,则大计群吏之治而诛赏之。
By the Eight regulations, he regulates the Ministries,…
by the Eight Principles, he regulates the cities and the towns,…
by the Eight Handles, he helps the king to control the many officers,…
by the Eight Guidelines, he helps the king to control the people,…
by the Nine Offices, he employs the people,…
by the Nine Taxes, he reassembles the richness and values,…
by the Nine Measures, he equals and moderates the finances [of the ministries],…
by the Nine tributes, he effects the expenditures of the country,…
by the Nine Couplings, he helds together the people of the country…
At the end of the year, he orders all officers to regulate each one of their duties, and he receives their account, he makes them report how they effected their duties, and he suggests the king whom to dismiss and whom to confirm. Every third year, he carries out the great control of the government of all officers and punishes or rewards them.

6.冬官考工记
凫氏为钟.两栾谓之铣,铣间谓之于,于上谓之鼓,鼓上谓之钲,钲上谓之舞,舞上谓之甬,甬上谓之衡,钟悬谓之旋,旋虫谓之干,钟带谓之篆,篆间谓之枚,枚间谓之景,于上之攠(=磨)谓之隧.
十分之铣,去二以为钲.以其钲为之铣间,去二分以为之鼓间.以其鼓间为之舞修,去二分以为舞广.以其钲之长为之甬长,以其甬长为之围.参(=三)分其甬长,二在上,一在下,以设其旋.
薄厚之所震动,清浊之所由出,侈弇之所由兴,有说:钟已厚则石,已薄则播,侈则柞,弇则郁,长甬则震.是故大钟十分其鼓间,以其一为之厚;小钟十分其钲 间,以其一为之厚.钟大而短,则其声疾而短闻;钟小而长,则其声舒而远闻.为隧,六分其厚,以其一为之深而圜也.
The “Wild Duck Master” produces bells. The two edges at the opening of the bell are called xian, the part between the edges (the opening) is called yu (“expansion”), the part above the “expansion” (the lower, undecorated part of the corpus) is called gu (“drum”), the part above the “drum” (the decorated upper part of the corpus) is called zheng (“sounding part”), the part above the zheng (the head of the corpus) is called wu (“dancer”), the part above the wu (the top of the corpus) is called yong (“protuberance”), the upper part of the hanger is called heng. The suspension part is called xuan, the dragon-like decoration of the suspension is called han (“reinforcement”), the belt-like decoration of the corpus is called zhuan, the (belt) parts between these “belts” are called mei, the protruding buttons (the “nipple nails” 乳钉) are called jing. The polished part above the rim (the lower, non-decorated part of the corpus below the “drum”) is called sui.
The distance between the edges (xian) at the opening are divided into ten parts. Two parts are taken away to obtain the diameter of the sounding zheng part.The same distance is taken for the distance at the expansion xian part. Two parts are taken away to obtain the inner measure of the “drum”gu part. Using this measure, the length or height of the “dancing” wu part is made. Again, two parts are taken away to obtain the width of the “dancing” part. The length of the “sounding” zheng part is the same as the length of the “protuberance”yong part. Its circumference has the same measure as its length. This measure is divided into three, two parts above, and one part below correspond to the length of the suspension xuan part.
There are special explanations to regulate the movement of the bell’s oscillation, as a result of the various thickness of the bell, and to regulate the pure or impure sound, depending on the width and size of the bell. If the bell is to thick, it sounds like a stone. If it is to thin, the sound dissipates. A wide bell has a radiant sound, a narrow bell is scarcely canorous. If the upper part of the corpus is too long, the vibration is to strong. Therefore, producing large bells, the inner measure of the “drum” is divided into ten parts. One part of is corresponds to the thickness of the wall. Producing small bells, the inner measure of the “sounding” zheng part is divided into ten. One part corresponds to the thickness of the wall. A large bell being too short, the sound will be vivacious, but fading out soon. A small bell bring too long, the sound will be extended and of long endurance. Concerning the polished lower sui part of a bell, it should be divided into six parts. One part of it serves as measure for the circular deepness of the bell.

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